Westberg, John A., Contract Excuse in International Business Transactions: Awards of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, 4 ICSID Rev.-FILR 1989, at 215 et seq.

As may be seen from the foregoing, the Tribunal's contribution thus far to the law of contract excuse has been substantial. The numerous awards of the Tribunal leave no doubt that the concept of force majeure is a general


principle of law, and that revolutionary changes in governments and the chaotic conditions that usually go along with such changes may be invoked as force majeure to excuse nonperformance of contract obligations, at least temporarily, even where such is not provided for in the contract.

Referring Principles
Trans-Lex Principle: VI.3 - Force majeure
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