(a) Throughout the proceedings, the parties shall be treated with equality.
(b) Each party shall be given a full opportunity to present his case at all stages of the proceedings ("audiatur et altera pars”).
(c) The parties shall be given sufficient advance notice of any hearing and of any meeting of the arbitral tribunal for the purpose of taking evidence.
(d) All written pleadings, documents or other communications supplied to the arbitral tribunal by one party shall be communicated to the other party. Likewise, expert reports and other evidentiary documents on which the arbitral tribunal may rely in making its decision are to be communicated to both parties.
(e) The parties are entitled to be legally represented.
Arbitration RulesAustralian Centre for International Commercial Arbitration (ACICA) Arbitration RulesDIS Arbitration Rules 1998, downloadable at http://www.dis-arb.deSwiss Rules of International Arbitration 2006UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules 1976UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules 2010 (revised)WIPO Arbitration Rules
DoctrineDalhuisen, Jan H. - Legal Orders and Their Manifestation: The Operation of the International Commercial and Financial Legal Order and Its Lex Mercatoria, (2006) 24 Berk J Intl L 129.
International LegislationUNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration
Model LawsUNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration with Amendments, 2006
National LegislationAustrian Arbiration Law 2006English Arbitration Act 1996Scottish Arbitration Bill 2009US Uniform Arbitration Act 2000Zivilprozessordnung - German Code of Civil Procedure